### Overview

Each “Phase distance” zone is configured individually through its own setting menu. The “Phase mho distance” function uses a dynamic 100% memory-polarized mho characteristic with additional reactance, directional, and overcurrent supervising characteristics. The “Phase quadrilateral distance” function has a reactance characteristic, right and left blinders, and 100% memory-polarized directional and current supervising characteristics.

For more detailed information on “Phase distance” function, refer to GE, Universal Relay (UR) family of products, Version 8.0x manuals.

To view other supported elements, click here.

### Setting Parameters

#### Modbus memory map for Setting parameters

Products | Hex address | Register name | Range | Units | Step | Format | Default |

D30, D60, G60, L60, L90, T60 | 47C1 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Function | 0 to 1 | — | 1 | F102 | 0 (Disabled) |

" | 47C2 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Current Supervision | 0.05 to 30 | pu | 0.001 | F001 | 200 |

" | 47C3 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Reach | 0.02 to 500 | ohms | 0.01 | F001 | 200 |

" | 47C4 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Direction | 0 to 2 | — | 1 | F154 | 0 (Forward) |

" | 47C5 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Comparator Limit | 30 to 90 | degrees | 1 | F001 | 90 |

" | 47C6 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Delay | 0 to 65.535 | s | 0.001 | F001 | 0 |

" | 47C7 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Block | 0 to 4294967295 | — | 1 | F300 | 0 |

" | 47C9 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Target | 0 to 2 | — | 1 | F109 | 0 (Self-reset) |

" | 47CA | Phase Distance Zone 1 Events | 0 to 1 | — | 1 | F102 | 0 (Disabled) |

" | 47CB | Phase Distance Zone 1 Shape | 0 to 1 | — | 1 | F120 | 0 (Mho) Fixed in G60 |

" | 47CC | Phase Distance Zone 1 RCA | 30 to 90 | degrees | 1 | F001 | 85 |

" | 47CD | Phase Distance Zone 1 DIR RCA | 30 to 90 | degrees | 1 | F001 | 85 |

" | 47CE | Phase Distance Zone 1 DIR Comp Limit | 30 to 90 | degrees | 1 | F001 | 90 |

" | 47CF | Phase Distance Zone 1 Quad Right Blinder | 0.02 to 500 | ohms | 0.01 | F001 | 1000 |

" | 47D0 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Quad Right Blinder RCA | 60 to 90 | degrees | 1 | F001 | 85 |

" | 47D1 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Quad Left Blinder | 0.02 to 500 | ohms | 0.01 | F001 | 1000 |

" | 47D2 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Quad Left Blinder RCA | 60 to 90 | degrees | 1 | F001 | 85 |

" | 47D3 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Volt Limit | 0 to 5 | pu | 0.001 | F001 | 0 |

" | 47D4 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Transformer Voltage Connection | 0 to 12 | — | 1 | F153 | 0 (None) |

" | 47D5 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Transformer Current Connection | 0 to 12 | — | 1 | F153 | 0 (None) |

" | 47D6 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Rev Reach | 0.02 to 500 | ohms | 0.01 | F001 | 200 |

" | 47D7 | Phase Distance Zone 1 Rev Reach RCA | 30 to 90 | degrees | 1 | F001 | 85 |

" | 47D8 | Reserved (10 items) | — | — | — | F001 | 0 |

" | 4700 | …Repeated for Phase Distance Zone 2 | |||||

" | 4803 | …Repeated for Phase Distance Zone 3 | |||||

D30, D60, L90 T60 | 4824 | …Repeated for Phase Distance Zone 4 | |||||

" | 4845 | …Repeated for Phase Distance Zone 5 | |||||

D60, L90 | 4866 | …Repeated for Phase Distance Zone 6 | |||||

F102 | 0 = Disabled, 1 = Enabled | ||||||

F109 | 0 = Self-reset, 1 = Latched, 2 = Disabled | ||||||

F120 | 0 = Mho, 1 = Quad, Fixed at Mho in G60 | ||||||

F153 | 0 = None, 1 = Dy1, 2 = Dy3, 3 = Dy5, 4 = Dy7, 5 = Dy9, 6 = Dy11, 7 = Yd1, 8 = Yd3, 9 = Yd5, 10 = Yd7, 11 = Yd9, 12 = Yd11 | ||||||

F154 | 0 = Forward, 1 = Reverse, 2 = Non-Directional | ||||||

F300 | 0 : Off (This is boolean FALSE value), 1 : On (This is boolean TRUE value) | ||||||

### Logics & highlights

#### Directional mho phase distance characteristic

#### Non-directional mho phase distance characteristic

#### Directional quadrilateral phase distance characteristic

#### Non-directional quadrilateral phase distance characteristic

#### Mho distance characteristic sample shapes

#### Quadrilateral distance characteristic sample shapes

#### Application of the PH DIST XFMR VOL/CUR CONNECTION settings

#### Phase distance zone 1 operate logic

#### Phase distance zone 2 operate logic

#### Phase distance logic

### Definition of Setting Parameters

**PHS DIST Z1 DIR** — All phase distance zones are reversible. The forward direction is defined by the PHS DIST Z1 RCA setting, whereas the reverse direction is shifted 180° from that angle. The non-directional zone spans between the forward reach impedance defined by the PHS DIST Z1 REACH and PHS DIST Z1 RCA settings, and the reverse reach impedance defined by PHS DIST Z1 REV REACH and PHS DIST Z1 REV REACH RCA.

**PHS DIST Z1 SHAPE** — This setting selects the shape of the phase distance function between the mho and quadrilateral characteristics. The selection is available on a per-zone basis. The two characteristics and their possible variations are shown in the following figures.

**PHS DIST Z1 XFMR VOL CONNECTION** — The phase distance elements can be applied to look through a three-phase delta-wye or wye-delta power transformer. In addition, VTs and CTs can be located independently from one another at different windings of the transformer. If the potential source is located at the correct side of the transformer, set this setting to “None.”

This setting specifies the location of the voltage source with respect to the involved power transformer in the direction of the zone. The following figure illustrates the usage of this setting. In section (a), zone 1 is looking through a transformer from the delta into the wye winding. Therefore, the Z1 setting is set to “Dy11.” In section (b), Zone 4 is looking through a transformer from the wye into the delta winding. Therefore, the Z4 setting is set to “Yd1.” The zone is restricted by the potential point (location of the VTs) as illustrated in (e).

**PHS DIST Z1 XFMR CUR CONNECTION** — This setting specifies the location of the current source with respect to the involved power transformer in the direction of the zone. In section (a) of the following figure, zone 1 is looking through a transformer from the delta into the wye winding. Therefore, the Z1 setting is set to “Dy11.” In section (b), the CTs are located at the same side as the read point. Therefore, the Z4 setting is set to “None.”

**PHS DIST Z1 REACH** — This setting defines the zone reach for the forward and reverse applications. In the non-directional applications, this setting defines the forward reach of the zone. The reverse reach impedance in non-directional applications is set independently. The reach impedance is entered in secondary ohms. The reach impedance angle is entered as the PHS DIST Z1 RCA setting.

Zone 1 is characterized by transient overreach of less than 5% under source impedance ratios of up to 30. When setting an under-reaching zone 1 for direct tripping and under-reaching pilot schemes (DUTT, PUTT) also consider other factors as per rules of distance relaying. In non-directional applications, this 5% transient accuracy applies to the forward reach only.

To achieve specified operating speed of distance elements, the relay internally calculates source to line impedance ratio (SIR) from fault phasors. In these calculations, line impedance is estimated based on the zone 1 reach setting. Therefore, in order to calculate the SIR value properly and to maintain the optimal operating speed of the distance elements, set zone 1 reach with a regular 80 to 85% of the line impedance reach setting, even when zone 1 is disabled.

**PHS DIST Z1 RCA** — This setting specifies the characteristic angle (similar to the “maximum torque angle” in previous technologies) of the phase distance characteristic for the forward and reverse applications. In the non-directional applications, this setting defines the angle of the forward reach impedance. The reverse reach impedance in the nondirectional applications is set independently. The setting is an angle of reach impedance as shown in the distance characteristic figures earlier. This setting is independent from PHS DIST Z1 DIR RCA, the characteristic angle of an extra directional supervising function.

**PHS DIST Z1 REV REACH** — This setting defines the reverse reach of the non-directional zone (PHS DIST Z1 DIR setting). The value must be entered in secondary ohms. This setting does not apply when the zone direction is set to “Forward” or “Reverse.”

**PHS DIST Z1 REV REACH RCA** — This setting defines the angle of the reverse reach impedance of the non-directional zone (PHS DIST Z1 DIR setting). This setting does not apply when the zone direction is set to “Forward” or “Reverse.”

**PHS DIST Z1 COMP LIMIT** — This setting specifies the shape the operating characteristic. In particular, it produces the lens type characteristic of the mho function and a tent-shaped characteristic of the reactance boundary of the quadrilateral function. If the mho shape is selected, the same limit angle applies to both the mho and supervising reactance comparators. In conjunction with the mho shape selection, the setting improves loadability of the protected line. In conjunction with the quadrilateral characteristic, this setting improves security for faults close to the reach point by adjusting the reactance boundary into a tent-shape.

**PHS DIST Z1 DIR RCA** — This setting selects the characteristic angle (or maximum torque angle) of the directional supervising function. If the mho shape is applied, the directional function is an extra supervising function as the dynamic mho characteristic is itself directional. In conjunction with the quadrilateral shape, this setting defines the only directional function built into the phase distance element. The directional function uses the memory voltage for polarization. This setting typically equals the distance characteristic angle PHS DIST Z1 RCA.

**PHS DIST Z1 DIR COMP LIMIT** — Selects the comparator limit angle for the directional supervising function.

**PHS DIST Z1 QUAD RGT BLD** — This setting defines the right blinder position of the quadrilateral characteristic along the resistive axis of the impedance plane (see the Quadrilateral Phase Distance Characteristic figures). The angular position of the blinder is adjustable with the use of the PHS DIST Z1 QUAD RGT BLD RCA setting. This setting applies only to the quadrilateral characteristic and is set giving consideration to the maximum load current and required resistive coverage.

**PHS DIST Z1 QUAD RGT BLD RCA **— This setting defines the angular position of the right blinder of the quadrilateral characteristic (see the Quadrilateral Distance Characteristic figures).

**PHS DIST Z1 QUAD LFT BLD** — This setting defines the left blinder position of the quadrilateral characteristic along the resistive axis of the impedance plane (see the Quadrilateral Distance Characteristic figures). The angular position of the blinder is adjustable with the use of the PHS DIST Z1 QUAD LFT BLD RCA setting. This setting applies only to the quadrilateral characteristic and is set with consideration to the maximum load current.

**PHS DIST Z1 QUAD LFT BLD RCA** — This setting defines the angular position of the left blinder of the quadrilateral characteristic (see the Quadrilateral Distance Characteristic figures).

**PHS DIST Z1 SUPV** — The phase distance elements are supervised by the magnitude of the line-to-line current (fault loop current used for the distance calculations). For convenience, is accommodated by the pickup (that is, before being used, the entered value of the threshold setting is multiplied by ).

If the minimum fault current level is sufficient, set the current supervision pickup above maximum full load current preventing maloperation under VT fuse fail conditions. This requirement can be difficult to meet for remote faults at the end of zones 2 and above. If this is the case, set the current supervision pickup below the full load current, but this can result in maloperation during fuse fail conditions.

Zone 1 is sealed-in with the current supervision.

**PHS DIST Z1 VOLT LEVEL** — This setting is relevant for applications on series-compensated lines, or in general, if series capacitors are located between the relaying point and a point where the zone does not overreach. For plain (noncompensated) lines, set to zero. Otherwise, the setting is entered in per unit of the phase VT bank configured under the DISTANCE SOURCE. Effectively, this setting facilitates dynamic current-based reach reduction. In non-directional applications (PHS DIST Z1 DIR set to “Non-directional”), this setting applies only to the forward reach of the non-directional zone. See the Application of Settings chapter for information on calculating this setting for series compensated lines.

**PHS DIST Z1 DELAY** — This setting allows the user to delay operation of the distance elements and implement stepped distance protection. The distance element timers for zones 2 and higher apply a short dropout delay to cope with faults located close to the zone boundary when small oscillations in the voltages or currents can inadvertently reset the timer.

Zone 1 does not need any drop-out delay since it is sealed-in by the presence of current.

**PHS DIST Z1 BLK** — This setting enables the user to select a FlexLogic operand to block a given distance element. VT fuse fail detection is one of the applications for this setting.